In the end, the Fraser Committee was ignored, and all aspects of street prostitution were criminalized. This regime treated street prostitutes very harshly, but also in the name of equality and concern for well-being, extended a broad net Ibid. The communication law was amended in to create a separate offence for soliciting a minor; however, to obtain a conviction it was essential that the youth testify against their customer — and few did.
The popular images are vivid: Sexual freedom via sexual citizenship has been defined as the freedom to engage in various forms of sexual practice in personal relationships Richardson However, popular ideology holds that families are not supposed to produce or harbor erotic non- conformity Rubin This meshes with assumptions that all bodies could occupy the role of good and safe citizen. This is also interesting in light of indications that hiring a sex worker may be more common among men who have sex with men than other populations and may be an integral element of the sexual landscape of gay communities Scott, MacPhail, and Minichiello ; cf.
Koken et al. For example, a community-based survey of sexually active non- monogamous MSM in New York City found that 43 percent of participants had either paid for sex, been paid for sex, or both Koken et al. Vectors of disease The discourses of criminality, dirt, and disease that frame prostitution intensified with the HIV epidemic in the s cf. Aggleton and Parker ; Brock ; Coates et al.
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These mis conceptualizations became a cluster of metaphors and a means for articulating many of the fears and anxieties of life Sontag By connecting the physical to the moral and by figuring illness as a mysterious and malevolent predator,31 metaphors mythicize disease Sontag Sontag warned against the potentially dehumanizing and damaging effects of these metaphors. Governments exploited the disease to create a new moral framework for society. This caused a specific concern towards men who had sex with men but did not identify as gay because they potentially kept sexual partnerships with women 30 Raids in of bar and bath houses in Montreal and Calgary were undertaken under federal Criminal Code bawdy house laws Smith To this day, sex workers are considered a "high-risk" population for contracting sexually transmitted infections.
Contemporary research retains a strong focus on sexual health with varying reports of HIV infections among 6. In fact, Bimbi reports that many studies found male sex workers were using condoms more frequently with their male clients than with their other sex partners cf. Bimbi notes that many studies are problematic due to multiple biases in method and a priori assumptions. Male Australian workers appear to have comparable or slightly higher rates of overall condom use Bimbi and Parsons Yet research in Kenya reports extremely poor understandings of HIV transmission and condom use between men who have sex with men Geibel et al Other studies are increasingly showing the level of sexual health knowledge among sex workers who offer their services in the street and internet.
Unmarked36 Canadian culture is by implication open, knowledgeable, and willing to engage with the rest of the world Heron Since at least , fiscal austerity, deficit reduction, and public service downsizing were the drivers of public policy. As with contemporary anti-trafficking legislation, early twentieth century laws targeting white slavery were implemented in response to international mandates and to external pressures from moral reformers.
When the UN adopted the Trafficking Protocol in , it was the first international definition of human trafficking. The aim of this prostitution. The operators of these sites face up to ten years imprisonment.
Online messaging boards that used to allow personals advertisements such as Craigslist responded by closing those sections of their sites. Heron Thanks to government sponsorship there is a large body of research that focuses on the exploitation of women and girls. This includes the absence of peer review, in depth disclosure of method, nor ethics review board approval and oversight.
The lack of disclosed ethics protocols etc. Additionally, there is no information on the recruitment process nor who was excluded from taking part in the study. The study gives the reader decontextualized, one-line soundbites from teens and men involved in the trade alongside quantitative data compiled from the questionnaire of multiple choice and yes and no questions. Here the data is presented in ways to support the concept of sexual exploitation. This includes such things as drug rehabilitation, safe supportive accommodation, and standard employment skills and experience.
In , McNaugton-Nicolls and colleagues completed exploratory research on the sexual exploitation of young males in the UK. When 37 Why the study continues to call them young men is unknown. Brayley, Cockbain, and Gibson , recognize that literature was extremely varied making analysis difficult. As such they also recognized the need for participatory-based research, but funding constraints limited their ability to do this. Comparing age of entry was difficult as different ages were categorized differently in different studies, and absolute numbers were not always reported alongside percentages.
In , the US Institute Against Human Trafficking held a symposium on the sexual exploitation of boys and men recognizing that they have been left behind by society with a lack of reporting and services dedicated to them. Unfortunately, while this attention is extremely important and necessary, the director of advocacy and research at the National Center on Sexual Exploitation was cited conflating adult male escorting and sex work with the sex trafficking of children Brown We must continue to be critical of studies like these as they overestimate the role of pimps and mask the difficult and complex choices faced by some who sell sex Marcus et al A comprehensive approach is required that accounts for the experiences, vulnerabilities, and needs of sex workers; research should be done in situ and respectfully; and policy needs to recognize the dignity and autonomy of these individuals Ibid.
Post-modern sensibilities Identities are multiple, contradictory, fragmented, incoherent, disciplinary, disunified, unstable, fluid — hardly the stuff that allows a researcher to confidently run out and study sexual subjects as if they are coherent and available social types Gamson Some sex workers are exploited by agents and clients; the media, law, and policy have perpetuated stereotypes and stigma; men who sell sex are actively oppressed by heteronormative discourse and gendered stereotypes vocalised by SWERFs and politicians; and the LGBTQ population is societally marginalized.
Though Smith alongside other feminists made vital albeit generalized claims to make political gains, they largely ignored that it was being achieved by silencing certain voices; privileging some and deprivileging others served as the cause of or exacerbated oppression and in some cases created an overbalance of power. This tension makes for an ambivalent identity and provides a leveler to unqualified and de-contextualized notions of the utopian artisan Ibid. In the context of non-female sex work, there are quite a few examples of studies that take-up the complexities inherent with the phenomenon.
Situated within a broader array of international socioeconomic relationships Allen described the lives of Afro-Cuban men who trade sex with male tourists and wealthy urban Cubans in order to fulfill desires for commodities and upward social mobility Dewey and Zheng Drawing from Blumer and Goffman, he explored labeling, stigma, and bodily encounters between male escort and client, providing a comprehensive interactionalist account of sex and sexualities.
A further example is seen in , where Dank and colleagues conducted interviews over three years with black, Latino and interracial LGBTQ New York City youth who sold sex, often after being kicked out of their familial homes due to their sexual or gender identities. Intersectional analysis allows for the move beyond the essentialist notion that all members of a population are equally and automatically subordinate or privileged just because they occupy a particular social position Bowleg ; Berger and Guidroz ; Rolin On another it shows the divisiveness of identity politics and allows for the questioning of the meaning and consequences of belonging to multiple social groups.
It enabled women's groups to bring to public consciousness the historical discrimination women faced. This is reinforced by further campaigns cf. According to Baranek, Deber and Williams , the control of individual action is subsequently justified by a reduction of harm to others.
Women in conflict with the law are rendered invisible and impotent while being objectified and eroticized Faith At the same time, women as good citizens and good mothers participate as partners in the criminal law reforms which strengthen the coercive power of the state. Despite neoliberal restructuring and the reduction of social supports for men, women are allocated more resources.
In the absence of social supports the provision of sexual services may be one of the few employment opportunities available; especially for those who do not want to or are not hired for jobs in customer service or manual labour. Research praxis and recruitment activities Understandings of sex work are historically and culturally contingent as well as socially and politically contested. As such, its conceptualization is a set of meanings and practices which have no inherent truth Laing and Gaffney ; Smith This fluidity places research in an awkward place and subsequent research has been as diverse and complex as the sex industry itself.
As such, the methods used, and conclusions made can be conflictual, dated, or inadequate to apply to research on men involved in the sex industry. Despite the impulse to order, much of cultural anthropology today reveals the disorderly, messy, and unstable social terrains upon which our research often unfolds. Precarity, insecurity, disorder, and uncertainty are common themes in recent theorizing on intersubjectivity and sexuality, politics, economics, and culture on every scale — personal, local, national, transnational, and global Goldstein What approach would accurately represent incoherence without imposing artificial order and completeness?
How do themes of injustice, capricious cruelty, dehumanization etc… become embodied in specific experiences? The heart of my inquiry then is an attitude of wonder or etonnement, an attitude of inquisitiveness with regard to the world Stocker This goes beyond simple curiosity. Curiosity is the urge to explain the unexpected or the urge to know more Piaget ; Engel Wonder however is the desire to know the unknown as well as the already known. Being as holistic as possible while cautiously addressing individualized nuances, sensitive and culturally-specific issues such as identity, sexual practices, and working relationships is key to this project Browne and Minichiello For deeper understanding and conceptualization of a phenomenon and subsequent policy analysis, evaluation, and decision-making an overarching framework that accounts for heterogeneity was needed.
This framework required a blend of qualitative praxes: Grounded analysis is a method that focuses on the study of experience from the perspectives of those who live it in order to develop theory.
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Similar to ethnography, it helps to provide thick descriptions but is more explicit in its systematic inquiry and constant interpretation Charmaz ; Glaser and Strauss In that regard, it is a particularly appropriate method for areas of study where established theory is lacking or data is limited Strauss and Corbin As a participatory approach, it allows stories to inform the research process rather than preconceived notions of what the population might experience Jones Blumer frames this process as, … a flexible procedure in which the scholar shifts from one to another line of inquiry, adopts new points of observation as his study progresses, moves in new directions previously unthought of, and changes his recognition of what are relevant data as he acquires more information and better understanding Because a person occupies multiple social locations not only are power dynamics individually perceived quite differently this intersection is constitutive of an experience greater than the sum of its parts Bukoski and Hatch ; Crenshaw Alcoff describes this as positionality; markers of relational positions that change contextually and shape knowledge in any given situation.
From here, intersectional analysis allows for the questioning of the meaning and consequences of belonging to multiple social groups. As per Cowburn, Duggan, and Pollock, It is important to ensure that research participants were not characterized as speaking for their particular demographic… but as speaking from that specific [intersectional] background in theorizing their own experiences The use of phenomenology, the philosophy of experience, allows for the move beyond considerations of cultural discourse, social relations, and political economy as well as beyond psychological considerations of selfhood, psychodynamics, and subjectivity Abu-Lughod ; Crapanzano From there distinctions between subjective and objective aspects of reality are shaped by the attitude a person has toward the world, as well as by the historical and cultural conditions that inform their values, assumptions, ideals, and norms.
This is what Husserl defines as the lifeworld, the mostly unquestioned, practical, historically conditioned, pre-theoretical, and familiar world of our everyday lives. Although the lifeworld is always necessarily structured in particular ways… it is not to be mistaken for a static, objective entity. It is instead a dynamic, shifting, and intersubjectively constituted existential reality that results from the ways that we are geared into the world by means of our particular situatedness as existential, practical, and historical beings.
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While necessarily serving as both the basis for, and the object of, scientific scrutiny, the lifeworld is never reducible simply to theoretical efforts at fixation and typification Desjarlais and Throop This fluidity places research in an awkward place; how can I know the world as it really is? Heidegger and Stambaugh followers however believe there are an endless number of realities and that all we have is interpretation Rapport and Wainwright I take the stance that there are indeed multiple essences of a phenomenon, but our interpretations and the ways we can interpret them are limited.
To describe the phenomenological then is to explore these interpretations and destabilize those assumptions that organize our pre- reflective interactions with the world Scheper-Hughes This allows for a discussion of the range of possibilities permissible regarding sex work, at given times in history, for specific individuals, as captured in interviews. On a basic level I ask what is it that makes one person see their experiences in the sex trade as exploitative and another find them liberating?
The assertion that there are multiple ways of interpreting the same experience is profound in itself in context of sex work research and policy as there are a multitude of voices straining to be heard and certain voices privileged i. As research is an intersubjective affair, ethnographers need to confront otherwise unrecognized aspects of their own assumptive worlds Throop In other words, this is a call for reflexive cultural relativism where I exhibit empathy and a degree of understanding of why someone feels and acts in certain ways while describing my pre- and in situ conceptions.
Lastly, traditional ethnographic research advocates for participant observation, for the researcher to be involved in the lives of the population studied and to record what is seen and heard Bourgois It seeks to produce thick description that accounts for context, to understand and describe the cultural and the meaning ascribed to social behaviour and situational reality by both the anthropologist and those being studied Geertz Lastly, critical ethnography acknowledges how academic research is implicated in the oppression of many groups and attempts to account for these injustices Tuhiwai Smith The aim is to get people to think about important questions in complicated, grounded, and thoughtful ways.
The world sex workers live in needs acknowledged through their own voices Smith ; cf. Namaste Tying these praxes together are life stories. Narratives are specific parts of the longer story a person tells about their life. This entails finding those with lived experience, asking them open-ended questions regarding these experiences, and conducting as many interviews as needed until saturation takes place. Saturation occurred when I began to notice the emergence of patterns of experience, story-telling, and reflection.
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From here, I was able to generate narrativized interpretations of what took place in their lives, drawing out complex narratives of structure and agency Abu-Lughod Narrative methodology Echoing the narrative turn in research requires I move beyond description, towards the interactional nature of knowledge production. As a critical starting point, narratives are acknowledged as being communication between people, and through narrating and telling stories, experiences are being shared, trust is created, and group-memberships maintained.
To account for this reality, my focus shifted to the textual and linguistic practices through which subjectivity took shape Gamson The narrator can use stylistic devices to accentuate certain features of the story. The interviewer and the subject conspire to construct a version of the self, and the strategies they employ… will probably derive from the shared unspoken regularities of interaction expectations in their culture Angrosino Walby This positioning of self and identity-making through narration works at two levels: Bamberg elaborates: Here we attempt to spot descriptions and evaluations of the characters and analyze the time and space coordinates in the way that these relate to social categories and their action potential.
From there we move into a closer analysis of the way these referential and representational aspects of story construction are assembled in their sequential arrangement among the participants of the conversation. The assumption that governs this step is that particular descriptions and evaluations are chosen for the interactive purpose of fending off and mitigating misinterpretations. The descriptions and evaluations rhetorically function to convey how speakers signal to their audience how they want to be understood It is important to remember that narrative research is not as simple as sitting down with someone and asking a series of questions Trahar Although I am curious about certain aspects of their lives in particular, narrative interviewing necessitates following participants down their own trails Riessman ; I have to reflexively build a dialogue, pulling out threads of a narrative for more detail, explanation, and exploration.
This means what I say must resonate with what was last said. In a typical semi-structured in-depth interview, pre-set open-ended questions are used, and the interviewer guides the participant.
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When the dialogue strayed into a different set of issues, this turn, and the themes generated help to paint the larger picture of what the interviewee thinks is important Walby This is a positioning of individual elements within a larger whole, forming a hermeneutic circle Heidegger and Stambaugh As such, when I manipulate, analyze, and distill the interviews after the fact, in order to preserve their authenticity, I use multiple forms of analysis to assist in providing validity.
Initially I transcribed my first two interviews which was a time intensive process as I was also completing class work. Other interviews were sent to a transcriptionist in Athens Alabama to minimize the risk of confidential information being used to expose and identify research participants. This was a dialectical process of reflexiveness where I relived each interview moment, went over my field notes, kept track of any insights, and highlighted any important soundbites.
If I had questions or wanted further clarification from an interviewee, I made note and contacted those who had consented, and we had a follow-up conversation via Facebook, email, or text message. The next stage involved rearranging any tangents in each interview into the main life narrative. Though this countered any naturalistic or conversational maneuvering between past, present, and future, it helped with thematic comparison and further analysis. The stories we tell about our relations with others are variably narrated because the way we interpret the past is always shifting Scott Additionally, narratives are not always linear but are re-ordered according 41 Privacy and security were also secured contractually via a service agreement from PAX Transcription.
https://kinun-houju.com/wp-content/nesucuquw/523.php All audio files were removed by the transcriptionist once invoices were paid and completed transcription files were backed up and then removed after 3 months. Yet some narratives do order characters and events in space and time. By identifying common thematic elements shared by research participants, the events they reported and the actions they took were used to show commonalities within the group of men or regarding a specific phenomenon Riessman Lastly, blurring the boundaries of theme, interaction, structure, and individual, narrative inquiry involved dialogic performance analysis that helps to show how narrative and story are used to construct a shifting intersubjective sense of self Bamberg Analysis began by coding the data after the first interview, breaking narratives into small chunks of concepts and key phrases Soulliere, Britt, and Maines From here I grouped concepts together, comparing and contrasting to form larger inclusive concepts.
As more narratives were told to me and connected over the course of fieldwork, I coded and linked concepts case by case as well as across all interviews Bernard and Ryan This meant focussing on the narrative at varying scales of magnitude and specificity.